Dealing With Sudanese

Posted on 15. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

I have decided to write a book about sudan and its people called SUDANESE.I can not write all from my first enrty to sudan todate.A muslim rather the biggest muslim african country in Area and second biggest muslim country in the world by area,a country having world’s longest and my beloved riveNILE THE GREAT.A country having very religious muslims.
I am going to write following things in particular.
1) Their culture and traditions versus african ,Arab and muslim culture.
2) They say ,who?the sudanese people say they are inoscent and simple,what was my experience.
3) They calim to be very religious,what a found and how i compare with other muslims.
4) They think they are specila nation,every nations has the right to say,on which basis what i found.
5) They claim muslims care about amana either they belive in amana or karama.
6) Their good habbits versus bad habbits from a muslim brother’s point of view.
7) Attitude towards muslims and western people.
8) Their hobbies.
9) Their fridays
10) Their education system.
11) My Sudanese brothers
12) My sudanese sisters.
13) How to deal with them
14) what mistakes i made in dealing them,I hope Allah Kareem will give me a chance to complete this book

Who Controls me!my brain or my heart ?

Posted on 15. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

Despite the variance of the species in which the brain is found there are many common features in its cellular make-up, its structure and its function. On a cellular level, the brain is composed of two classes of cell, neurons and glia, both of which contain several different cell types which perform different functions. Interconnected neurons form neural networks (or neural ensembles). These networks are similar to man-made electrical circuits in that they contain circuit elements (neurons) connected by biological wires (nerve fibers).
As we know that throughout the ages, the heart has been referred to as a source of not only virtue and love, but also of intelligence. One of the most prevalent themes in ancient traditions and inspirational writing is the heart as a flowing spring of intelligence.
Many ancient cultures, including the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Babylonian, and Greek, assert that the heart is the primary organ responsible for influencing and directing our emotions and our decision-making ability. Similar perspectives of the heart as a source of intelligence are found in Hebrew, Christian, Chinese, Hindu, and Islamic traditions. For example, the Old Testament saying in Proverbs 23:7, “For as a man thinketh in his heart, so is he,” is further developed in the New Testament in Luke 5:22, “What reason ye in your hearts?”
Balance and the attainment of bodily equilibrium are also recognized as the essence of Yoga traditions, which identifies the heart as the seat of individual consciousness and the center of life. In traditional Chinese medicine, the heart is seen as the connection between the mind and the body, forming a bridge between the two.
Even with all these traditions and colorful heart metaphors, most of us have been taught that the heart is just a ten-ounce muscle that pumps blood and maintains circulation until we die. Medical science asserts that the brain rules all of the body’s organs, including the heart. However, it is interesting to note that the heart starts beating in the unborn fetus even before the brain has been formed.
Neuroscientists have recently discovered exciting new information about the heart that makes us realize it’s far more complex than we’d ever imagined. Instead of simply pumping blood, it may actually direct and align many systems in the body so that they can function in harmony with one another.
These scientists have found that the heart has its own independent nervous system – a complex system referred to as “the brain in the heart.” There are at least forty thousand neurons (nerve cells) in the heart – as many as are found in various subcortical centers of the brain.
The heart communicates with the brain and the rest of the body in three ways documented by solid scientific evidence: neurologically (through transmissions of nerve impulses), biochemically (through hormones and neurotransmitters), and biophysically (through pressure waves). In addition, growing scientific evidence suggests that the heart may communicate with the brain and body in a fourth way – energetically (through electromagnetic field interactions). Through these biological communication systems, the heart has a significant influence on the function of our brains and all our Systems.
This new scientific evidence shows that the heart uses these methods to send our brain extensive emotional and intuitive signals. Along with this understanding that the heart is in constant communication with the brain, scientists are discovering that our hearts may actually be the “intelligent force” behind the intuitive thoughts and feelings we all experience.
Thanks to the discovery of heart intelligence, with its premise of the heart as a primary source of emotions, we have a new paradigm for understanding our emotions. With the strong scientific tie established between our wellness factor through emotional management. The more we learn to listen to and follow our heart intelligence, the more educated, balanced, and coherent our emotions become. And it naturally follows that the more balanced and coherent our emotions become, the less likely we will be to experience sickness and disease.
Because of the ever growing scientific research on heart intelligence, it may be time we developed a new personal attitude about following our hearts.”

Tips for learning to recognize our heart’s intelligence:

1)    Think positive thoughts throughout the day to increase your personal energy.
Our internal power, or the amount of physical, mental, and emotional energy we have, is a determining factor in the quality of our lives. Internal power translates into vitality and resiliency. Positive thoughts and feelings add energy to our system. Negative thoughts and feelings deplete our personal energy.

2)    Encourage your deepest heart feelings.
There are many positive heart feelings including love, compassion, nonjudgment, courage, patience, sincerity, forgiveness, appreciation, gratitude, and care. Experiencing these feelings increases synchronization and coherence in our heart’s rhythmic patterns. Each of these heart feelings has a powerful, beneficial effect on how we relate to life.

3)    Reduce your stress.
The less stress we feel, the less internal confusion we will experience, and the easier it will be to hear our heart’s intelligence. When we are relaxed, we don’t need to strain our body to stay focused and productive.

4)    Focus on recognizing your heart’s intelligence and realize the importance of listening to it before making choices.
The brain operates in a linear, logical manner that works great for many problems but can limit us in others. Often we need more than logic to solve a problem, especially if it is an emotional one.
Heart intelligence provides us with an intuitive awareness that is expanded beyond linear, logical thinking. As a result, our perspective usually becomes more flexible, creative, and comprehensive.

5)    Use meditation or calm, quiet moments to reflect on your heart’s intelligence and listen for intuitive thoughts.
Make time each day to sit quietly and focus on your heart. Imagine you are breathing through your heart. Calm your mind. Try to not think of anything but breathing through your heart. When your mind is clear, you will begin to receive impressions and ideas. These are coming from your heart. Pay attention.
BRAIN OR HEART-Who controls me ?

Its for you

Posted on 15. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

Pathar Hi lagain gay tujey her simt sey AAkey
Ye Joot ki duniya hey yahan sach na kaha kar
Ik baar nahi tujey so baar kaha tha
halaat key dharey key mukhalif na baha kar

Best Ultrasound Website

Posted on 10. Mar, 2011 by admin in Articles

One of the best ultrasound website has just launched, click on the link to learn all about ultrasound

My Favourite River: The Nile the great.

Posted on 15. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

My favorite River; The Nile the great.
I have seen more than 50 rivers including many famous rivers of the world, but the only river which attracted my soul is the River Nile, now when I am arranging this article, I am 100 yards away from it in khartoum, sudan.
Whenever I go near to it ,I feel it is talking with me and usually the message I got was salu ala Mohamed (sallel laho alaihi wassalam).
Mohamed (sallel laho alaihi wassalam).

Source confluencenear Khartoum
Length6,650 km (4,132 mi)

The Nile in Egypt
Name origin: “Nile”(Arabic: ‘nīl) comes from the Greek word Neilos (Νεῖλος)
Countries  Ethiopia,  Sudan,  Egypt,  Rwanda,  Tanzania,  Uganda,  Burundi,  Democratic Republic of the Congo,  Eritrea,  Kenya
Cities Jinja , Juba , Khartoum , Cairo
Primary source White Nile
 – elevation 2,700 m (8,858 ft)
 – coordinates 2°16′55.92″S 29°19′52.32″E / 2.2822°S 29.3312°E / -2.2822; 29.3312
Secondary source Blue Nile
 – location Lake Tana, Ethiopia
 – coordinates 12°2′8.8″N 37°15′53.11″E / 12.035778°N 37.2647528°E / 12.035778; 37.2647528
 – location Mediterranean Sea
 – elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Width 8 km (5 mi)
Basin 3,400,000 km2 (1,312,747 sq mi)
 – average 2,830 m3/s (99,941 cu ft/s)

The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎, an-nīl, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ’pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.
The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile, the latter being the source of most of the Nile’s water and fertile soil, but the former being the longer of the two. The White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source in southern Rwanda 2°16′55.92″S 29°19′52.32″E / 2.2822°S 29.3312°E / -2.2822; 29.3312, and flows north from there through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and southern Sudan, while the Blue Nile starts at Lake Tana in Ethiopia 12°2′8.8″N 37°15′53.11″E / 12.035778°N 37.2647528°E / 12.035778; 37.2647528, flowing into Sudan from the southeast. The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital Khartoum.

The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt, lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan; and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along the banks of the river. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea.

tymology of the word Nile

The word “Nile” comes from Greek Neilos (Νεῖλος), of unknown derivation. In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ’pī or iteru, meaning “great river”, represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the right (literally itrw, and ‘waters‘ determinative). In Coptic, the words piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic) meaning “the river” (lit. p(h).iar-o “the.canal-great”) come from the same ancient name.

Tributaries and distributaries

The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometres (1,256,591 sq mi), about 10% of the area of Africa.

There are two great tributaries of the Nile, joining at Khartoum: the White Nile, starting in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile, beginning in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift, the southern part of the Great Rift Valley. Below the Blue and White Nile confluence the only remaining major tributary is the Atbara River, which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana, and is around 800 kilometres (500 mi) long. It flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very fast. It joins the Nile approximately 300 kilometres (200 mi) north of Khartoum.

The Nile is unusual in that its last tributary (the Atbara) joins it roughly halfway to the sea. From that point north, the Nile diminishes because of evaporation.

The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. It flows over six groups of cataracts, from the first at Aswan to the sixth at Sabaloka (just north of Khartoum) and then turns to flow southward for a good portion of its course, before again returning to flow north to the sea. This is called the “Great Bend of the Nile”.

East Africa, showing the course of the Nile River, with the “Blue” and “White” Niles marked in those colours

North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries) that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta.

The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia forms the upstream of the Blue Nile. It is also known as Tis Issat Falls after the name of the nearby village.

The source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake itself has feeder rivers of considerable size. The most distant stream—and thus the ultimate source of the Nile—emerges from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda, via the Rukarara, Mwogo, Nyabarongo and Kagera rivers, before flowing into Lake Victoria in Tanzania near the town of Bukoba.

The Nile leaves Lake Victoria at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda, as the Victoria Nile. It flows for approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) farther, through Lake Kyoga, until it reaches Lake Albert. After leaving Lake Albert, the river is known as the Albert Nile. It then flows into Sudan, where it becomes known as the Bahr al Jabal (“River of the Mountain”). The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometres (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters. When the Nile flooded it left this rich material named silt. The Ancient Egyptians used this soil to farm. From Lake No, the river flows to Khartoum. An anabranch river called Bahr el Zeraf flows out of the Nile’s Bahr al Jabal section and rejoins the White Nile.

The term “White Nile” is used in both a general sense, referring to the entire river above Khartoum, and a limited sense, the section between Lake No and Khartoum.

Blue Nile

Main article: Blue Nile

The Blue Nile (Ge’ez ጥቁር ዓባይ Ṭiqūr ʿĀbbāy (Black Abay) to Ethiopians; Arabic: النيل الأزرق‎; transliterated: an-Nīl al-Azraq) springs from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands. The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the “Nile proper”. 90% of the water and 96% of the transported sediment carried by the Nile[4] originates in Ethiopia, with 59% of the water from the Blue Nile alone (the rest being from the Tekezé, Atbarah, Sobat, and small tributaries). The erosion and transportation of silt only occurs during the Ethiopian rainy season in the summer, however, when rainfall is especially high on the Ethiopian Plateau; the rest of the year, the great rivers draining Ethiopia into the Nile (Sobat, Blue Nile, Tekezé, and Atbarah) flow weakly.

Yellow Nile

The Yellow Nile is a former tributary that connected the Ouaddaï Highlands of eastern Chad to the Nile River Valley ca. 8000 to ca. 1000 BCE.[5] Its remains are known as the Wadi Howar. The wadi passes through Gharb Darfur near the northern border with Chad and meets up with the Nile and near the southern point of the Great Bend.

Lost headwaters

Formerly Lake Tanganyika drained northwards along the African Rift Valley into the Albert Nile, making the Nile about 900 miles (1,400 km) longer, until blocked in Miocene times by the bulk of the Virunga Volcanoes. See List of rivers by length.

The usage of the Nile River has been closely associated with the politics of East Africa and the Horn of Africa for many decades. Various countries, including Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya have complained about the Egyptian domination of the Nile water resources. The Nile Basin Initiative was one of the most important programs to promote equal usage and peaceful cooperation between the “Nile Basin States.” [6] Yet many fear, the Egyptian domination of the waters still causes massive economic obstacles in the area.

The Nile still supports much of the population living along its banks, with the Egyptians living in otherwise inhospitable regions of the Sahara. The river flooded every summer, depositing fertile silt on the plains. The flow of the river is disturbed at several points by cataracts, which are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, forming an obstacle to navigation by boats. The Sudd wetlands in Sudan also forms a formidable obstacle for navigation and flow of water, to the extent that Sudan had once attempted to dig a canal (the Jonglei Canal) to bypass this stagnant mass of water.[7]

The Nile was, and still is, used to transport goods to different places along its long path; especially since winter winds in this area blow up river, the ships could travel up with no work by using the sail, and down using the flow of the river. While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the construction of the Aswan High Dam (finished in 1970) to provide hydroelectricity ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil.

Cities on the Nile include Khartoum, Aswan, Luxor (Thebes), and the Giza – Cairo conurbation. The first cataract, the closest to the mouth of the river, is at Aswan to the north of the Aswan Dams. The Nile north of Aswan is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas. In addition, many “floating hotel” cruise boats ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping in at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way. It used to be possible to sail on these boats all the way from Cairo to Aswan, but security concerns have shut down the northernmost portion for many years.

More recently, drought during the 1980s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan but Egypt was protected from drought by water impounded in Lake Nasser. Beginning in the 1980s techniques of analysis using hydrology transport models have been used in the Nile to analyze water quality.


The Nile makes its way through the Sahara

The flow rate of the Albert Nile at Mongalla is almost constant throughout the year and averages 1,048 m3/s (37,000 cu ft/s). After Mongalla, the Nile is known as the Bahr El Jebel which enters the enormous swamps of the Sudd region of Sudan. More than half of the Nile’s water is lost in this swamp to evaporation and transpiration. The average flow rate in the Bahr El Jebel at the tails of the swamps is about 510 m3/s (18,000 cu ft/s). From here it soon meets with the Sobat River and forms the White Nile.

The Bahr al Ghazal and the Sobat River are the two most important tributaries of the White Nile in terms of drainage area and discharge. The Bahr al Ghazal’s drainage basin is the largest of any of the Nile’s sub-basins, measuring 520,000 square kilometres (200,000 sq mi) in size, but it contributes a relatively small amount of water, about 2 m3/s (71 cu ft/s) annually, due to tremendous volumes of water being lost in the Sudd wetlands. The Sobat River, which joins the Nile a short distance below Lake No, drains about half as much land, 225,000 km2 (86,900 sq mi), but contributes 412 cubic metres per second (14,500 cu ft/s) annually to the Nile.[8] When in flood the Sobat carries a large amount of sediment, adding greatly to the White Nile’s color.

The average flow of the White Nile at Malakal, just below the Sobat River, is 924 m3/s (32,600 cu ft/s), the peak flow is approximately 1,218 m3/s (43,000 cu ft/s) in early March and minimum flow is about 609 m3/s (21,500 cu ft/s) in late August. The fluctuation there is due the substantial variation in the flow of the Sobat which has a minimum flow of about 99 m3/s (3,500 cu ft/s) in August and a peak flow of over 680 m3/s (24,000 cu ft/s) in early March.

From here the White Nile flows to Khartoum where it merges with the Blue Nile to form the Nile River. Further downstream the Atbara River, the last significant Nile tributary, merges with the Nile. During the dry season (January to June) the White Nile contributes between 70% and 90% of the total discharge from the Nile. During this period of time the natural discharge of the Blue Nile can be as low as 113 m3/s (4,000 cu ft/s), although upstream dams regulate the flow of the river. During the dry period, there will typically be no flow from the Atbara River.

The Blue Nile contributes approximately 80-90% of the Nile River discharge. The flow of the Blue Nile varies considerably over its yearly cycle and is the main contribution to the large natural variation of the Nile flow. During the wet season the peak flow of the Blue Nile will often exceed 5,663 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s) in latter August (variation by a factor of 50).

Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. Peak flows of over 8,212 m3/s (290,000 cu ft/s) would occur during the later portions of August and early September and minimum flows of about 552 m3/s (19,500 cu ft/s) would occur during later April and early May. The Nile basin is complex, and because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions, evaporation/evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow.


The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile’s upper reaches.

The Nile (iteru in Ancient Egyptian) was the lifeline of the ancient Egyptian civilization, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan. The Nile has been the lifeline for Egyptian culture since the Stone Age. Climate change, or perhaps overgrazing, desiccated the pastoral lands of Egypt to form the Sahara desert, possibly as long ago as 8000 BC, and the inhabitants then presumably migrated to the river, where they developed a settled agricultural economy and a more centralized society.

The Eonile

The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands. Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile. An Eonile canyon, now filled by surface drift, represents an ancestral Nile called the Eonile that flowed during the later Miocene (23–5.3 million years before the present). The Eonile transported clastic sediments to the Mediterranean, where several gas fields have been discovered within these sediments.

During the late-Miocene Messinian Salinity Crisis, when the Mediterranean Sea was a closed basin and evaporated empty or nearly so, the Nile cut its course down to the new base level until it was several hundred feet below world ocean level at Aswan and 8,000 feet (2,400 m) below Cairo. This huge canyon is now full of later sediment.

Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Nile until the Virunga Volcanoes blocked its course in Rwanda. That would have made the Nile much longer, with its longest headwaters in northern Zambia.

 The integrated Nile

There are two theories in relation to the age of the integrated Nile. The first one is that the integrated drainage of the Nile is of young age, that the Nile basin was formerly broken into series of separate basins, only the most northerly (the Proto Nile basin) feeding a river following the present course of the Nile in Egypt and in the far north of the Sudan.[10] Said (1981) stresses the idea that Egypt itself supplied most of the waters of the Nile during the early part of its history. The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile and the Atbara/Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times.[11]

Salama (1987) suggested that during the Tertiary there were a series of separate closed continental basins, each basin occupying one of the major Sudanese Rift System: Mellut Rift, White Nile Rift, Blue Nile Rift, Atbara Rift and Sag El Naam Rift.[12] The Mellut Rift Basin is nearly 12 km deep at its central part. This rift is possibly still active, with reported tectonic activity in its northern and southern boundaries. The Sudd swamps which forms the central part of the Basin is possibly still subsiding. The White Nile Rift System, although shallower than Bahr El Arab, is about 9 km deep. Geophysical exploration of the Blue Nile Rift System estimated the depth of the sediments to be 5–9 km. These basins were not interconnected except after their subsidence ceased and the rate of sediment deposition was enough to fill up the basins to such a level that would allow connection to take place. The filling up of the depressions led to the connection of the Egyptian Nile with the Sudanese Nile, which captures the Ethiopian and Equatorial head waters during the latest stages of tectonic activities of Eastern, Central and Sudanese Rift Systems.[13] The connection of the different Niles occurred during the cyclic wet periods. The River Atbara overflowed its closed basin during the wet periods which occurred about 100,000 to 120,000 years B.P. The Blue Nile was connected to the main Nile during the 70,000–80,000 years B.P. wet period. The White Nile system in Bahr El Arab and White Nile Rifts remained a closed lake until the connection of the Victoria Nile some 12,500 years B.P.

Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization

This article may require copy-editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone or spelling. You can assist by editing it. (July 2008)

Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world) ancient map based on Herodotus‘ description of the world, circa 450 BCE.

The Nile, an unending source of sustenance, provided a crucial role in the development of Egyptian civilization. The Nile made the land surrounding it extremely fertile when it flooded or was inundated annually. The Egyptians were able to cultivate wheat and crops around the Nile, providing food for the general population. Also, the Nile’s water attracted game such as water buffalo; and after the Persians introduced them in the 7th century BC, camels. These animals could be killed for meat, or could be captured, tamed and used for ploughing — or in the camels’ case, travelling. Water was vital to both people and livestock. The Nile was also a convenient and efficient way of transportation for people and goods.

Dhows on the Nile

The structure of Egypt’s society made it one of the most stable in history. In fact, it might easily have surpassed many modern societies. This stability was an immediate result of the Nile’s fertility. The Nile also provided flax for trade. Wheat was also traded, a crucial crop in the Middle East where famine was very common. This trading system secured the diplomatic relationship Egypt had with other countries, and often contributed to Egypt’s economic stability. Also, the Nile provided the resources such as food or money, to quickly and efficiently raise an army for offensive or defensive roles.

The Nile played a major role in politics and social life. The pharaoh would supposedly flood the Nile, and in return for the life-giving water and crops, the peasants would cultivate the fertile soil and send a portion of the resources they had reaped to the Pharaoh. He or she would in turn use it for the well-being of Egyptian society.

The Nile was a source of spiritual dimension. The Nile was so significant to the lifestyle of the Egyptians, that they created a god dedicated to the welfare of the Nile’s annual inundation. The god’s name was Hapy, and both he and the pharaoh were thought to control the flooding of the Nile. Also, the Nile was considered as a causeway from life to death and afterlife. The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Ra, the Sun, underwent birth, death, and resurrection each time he crossed the sky. Thus, all tombs were located west of the Nile, because the Egyptians believed that in order to enter the afterlife, they must be buried on the side that symbolized death.

The Greek historian, Herodotus, wrote that ‘Egypt was the gift of the Nile’, and in a sense that is correct. Without the waters of the Nile River for irrigation, Egyptian civilization would probably have been short-lived. The Nile provided the elements that make a vigorous civilization, and contributed much to its lasting three thousand years.

That far-reaching trade has been carried on along the Nile since ancient times can be seen from the Ishango bone, possibly the earliest known indication of Ancient Egyptian multiplication, which was discovered along the headwaters of the Nile River (near Lake Edward, in northeastern Congo) and was carbon-dated to 20,000 BC.

The search for the source of the Nile

The Great Bend of the Nile in Sudan, looking north across the Sahara Desert towards Northern Sudan.

Despite the attempts of the Greeks and Romans (who were unable to penetrate the Sudd), the upper reaches of the Nile remained largely unknown. Various expeditions had failed to determine the river’s source, thus yielding classical Hellenistic and Roman representations of the river as a male god with his face and head obscured in drapery. Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a military expedition had penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian Highlands, but no European in antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana.

Historic map of the River Nile by Piri Reis

Europeans learned little new information about the origins of the Nile until the 15th and 16th centuries, when travelers to Ethiopia visited not only Lake Tana, but the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake. Although James Bruce claimed to have been the first European to have visited the headwaters (Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, 1790), modern writers with better knowledge give the credit to the Jesuit Pedro Páez. Páez’ account of the source of the Nile (History of Ethiopia c. 1622) was not published in full until the early 20th century. The work is a long and vivid account of Ethiopia. The account is however featured in several contemporary works, including Balthazar Telles (Historia geral da Ethiopia a Alta, 1660), Athanasius Kircher (Mundus Subterraneus, 1664) and by Johann Michael Vansleb (The Present State of Egypt, 1678). Europeans had been resident in the country since the late 15th century, and it is entirely possible one of them had visited the headwaters even earlier but was unable to send a report of his discoveries out of Ethiopia. Jerónimo Lobo also describes the source of the Blue Nile, visiting shortly after Pedro Páez. His account is likewise utilized by Balthazar Telles.

The White Nile was even less understood, and the ancients mistakenly believed that the Niger River represented the upper reaches of the White Nile; for example, Pliny the Elder wrote that the Nile had its origins “in a mountain of lower Mauretania“, flowed above ground for “many days” distance, then went underground, reappeared as a large lake in the territories of the Masaesyli, then sank again below the desert to flow underground “for a distance of 20 days’ journey till it reaches the nearest Ethiopians.” [14] A merchant named Diogenes reported the Nile’s water attracted game such as water buffalo; and after the Persians introduced them in the 7th century BC, camels.

Lake Victoria was first sighted by Europeans in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore whilst on his journey with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the great Lakes. Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this “vast expanse of open water” for the first time, Speke named the lake after the then Queen of the United Kingdom. Burton, who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled. A very public quarrel ensued, which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day, but much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke’s discovery. The well known British explorer and missionary David Livingstone failed in his attempt to verify Speke’s discovery, instead pushing too far west and entering the Congo River system instead. It was ultimately the Welsh-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley who confirmed the truth of Speke’s discovery, circumnavigating Lake Victoria and reporting the great outflow at Ripon Falls on the Lake’s northern shore.

European involvement in Egypt goes back to the time of Napoleon. Laird shipyard of Liverpool sent an iron steamer to the Nile in the 1830s. With the completion of the Suez Canal, and the British takeover of Egypt in the1870s, more British river steamers were sure to follow. The Nile is the natural navigation channel in the area. Access to Khartoum and Sudan was via steamer. The Siege of Khartoum was ameliorated with steamers. Purpose built sternwheelers were shipped from England and steamed up the river to re-take the city. After this regular steam navigation came. With British Forces in Egypt in the First World War and the inter war years, river steamers provided both security and sight seeing to the pyramids and Luxor. Agatha Christie stories indicate the penetration of Nile steamer into the public consciousness. Steam navigation remained integral to the two countries as late as 1962—Sudan steamer traffic was the lifeline as few railways or roads were built. Most paddle steamers have been retired to shorefront service, but modern diesel tourist boats remain on the river.

 Modern achievements

The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt’s capital city

The White Nile Expedition, led by South African national Hendri Coetzee, became the first to navigate the Nile’s entire length. The expedition took off from the source of the Nile in Uganda on 17 January 2004 and arrived safely at the Mediterranean in Rosetta, 4 months and 2 weeks later. National Geographic released a feature film about the expedition towards in late 2005 entitled The Longest River.

On 28 April 2004, geologist Pasquale Scaturro and his partner, kayaker and documentary filmmaker Gordon Brown became the first people to navigate the Blue Nile, from Lake Tana in Ethiopia to the beaches of Alexandria on the Mediterranean. Though their expedition included a number of others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to remain on the expedition for the entire journey. They chronicled their adventure with an IMAX camera and two handheld video cams, sharing their story in the IMAX film Mystery of the Nile, and in a book of the same title. The team was forced to use outboard motors for most of their journey, and it was not until 29 January 2005 when Canadian Les Jickling and New Zealander Mark Tanner reached the Mediterranean Sea, that the river had been paddled for the first time under human power.

A team led by South Africans Peter Meredith and Hendri Coetzee on 30 April 2005, became the first to navigate the most remote headstream, the remote source of the Nile, the Akagera river, which starts as the Rukarara in Nyungwe forest in Rwanda.

On 31 March 2006, three explorers from Britain and New Zealand lead by Neil McGrigor claimed to have been the first to travel the river from its mouth to a new “true source” deep in Rwanda’s Nyungwe rainforest.

Crossings I

This is a list of crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Sea:

  • Aswan Bridge, Aswan
  • Luxor Bridge, Luxor
  • Suhag Bridge, Suhag
  • Assiut Bridge, Assiut
  • Al Minya Bridge, Minya
  • Al Marazeek Bridge, Helwan
  • 1st Ring Road Bridge (Moneeb Crossing), Cairo
  • Abbas Bridge, Cairo
  • University Bridge, Cairo
  • Qasr El Nile Bridge, Cairo
  • 6th of October Bridge, Cairo
  • Abu El Ela Bridge, Cairo (removed)
  • New Abu El Ela Bridge, Cairo
  • Imbaba Bridge, Cairo
  • Rod Elfarag Bridge, Cairo
  • 2nd Ring Road Bridge, Cairo

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Crossings II

This is a list of crossings from Rwanda to Khartoum:

  • Nalubaale Bridge, Jinja, Uganda (Formerly Owen Falls Bridge)
  • Karuma Bridge, Karuma, Uganda

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Images of the Nile

View of the Nile from a cruiseboat, between Luxor and Aswan in Egypt A dhow traversing the Nile near Aswan A boat in the Nile zamalek area, Cairo.
Marsh along the Nile The Nile in Uganda A river boat crossing the Nile in Uganda
Riverboat on the Nile, Egypt 1900


River and mountain scenery on the Nile People living on the banks of the Nile

See also

  • Nalubaale Power Station
  • Kiira Power Station
  • Bujagali Power Station
  • Aswan Dam
  • Merowe Dam
  • Hydropolitics in the Nile Basin
  • Nile Basin Initiative(NBI)
  • Egyptian Public Works
  • Nile Delta
  • Orders of magnitude (length)
  • River cruise


  1. ^River Encarta (Accessed 3 October 2006). Archived 2009-11-01.
  2. ^What did the ancient Egyptians call the Nile river? Open Egyptology. (Accessed 17 October 2006 – Login required or enter as Guest)
  3. ^EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal
  4. ^Marshall et al., Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic change from Lake Tana, source of the Blue NilePDF (247 KiB), 2006
  5. ^Keding, B (2000). “New data on the Holocene occupation of the Wadi Howar region (Eastern Sahara/Sudan).” Studies in African Archaeology 7, 89–104.
  6. ^The Nile Basin Initiative
  7. ^Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer. pp. 286–287. ISBN 140200866X. ; online at Google Books
  8. ^Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer. pp. 276, 287–288. ISBN 140200866X. ; online at Google Books
  9. ^“Sobat River”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
  10. ^Said, R. (1981). The geological evolution of the River Nile. Springer Verlag.
  11. ^Williams, M.A.J. and Williams, F. (1980). Evolution of Nile Basin. In M.A.J. Williams and H. Faure (eds), The Sahara and the Nile. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 207–224.
  12. ^Salama, R.B. (1987). “The evolution of the River Nile, The buried saline rift lakes in Sudan”.  African Earth Sciences 6 (6): 899–913. doi:10.1016/0899-5362(87)90049-2.
  13. ^Salama, R.B. (1997). Rift Basins of Sudan. African Basins, Sedimentary Basins of the World. 3. Edited by R.C. Selley (Series Editor K.J. Hsu) p. 105–149. ElSevier, Amsterdam.
  14. ^Natural History, 5.10
  15. ^ News item on Expeditions official website (via cache )[dead link]
  16. ^[dead link]

Annotated bibliography

An annotated bibliography of the key written documents for the Western exploration of the Nile.


  • Historia da Ethiopia, Pedro Páez(aka Pero Pais), Portugal, 1620

A Jesuit missionary who was sent from Goa to Ethiopia in 1589 and remained in the area until his death in 1622. Credited with being the first European to view the source of the Blue Nile which he describes in this volume.

  • Voyage historique d’Abissinie, Jerónimo Lobo(aka Girolamo Lobo), Piero Matini, Firenze; 1693

One of the most important and earliest sources on Ethiopia and the Nile. Jerónimo Lobo (1595-1687), a Jesuit priest, stayed in Ethiopia, mostly in Tigre, for 9 years and travelled to Lake Tana and the Blue Nile, reaching the province of Damot. When the Jesuits were expelled from the country, he too had to leave and did so via Massaua and Suakin. ‘He was the best expert on Ethiopian matters. After Pais, Lobo is the second European to describe the sources of the Blue Nile and he did so more exactly than Bruce’ (transl. from Henze)


  • Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile in the Years – 1768, 1770, 1771, 1772, and 1773, James Bruceof Kinnaird. J. Ruthven for G.GJ. and J. Robinson et al., Edinburgh, 1790 (5 Volumes)

With time on his hands and at the urging of a friend, Bruce composed this account of his travels on the African continent, including comments on the history and religion of Egypt, an account of Indian trade, a history of Abyssinia, and other material. Although Bruce would not be confused with “a great scholar or a judicious critic., few books of equal compass are equally entertaining; and few such monuments exist of the energy and enterprise of a single traveller” (DNB). “The result of his travels was a very great enrichment of the knowledge of geography and ethnography” (Cox II, p. 389.) Bruce was one of the earliest westerners to search for the source of the Nile. In November of 1770 he reached the source of the Blue Nile, and though he acknowledged that the White Nile was the larger stream, he claimed that the Blue Nile was the Nile of the ancients and that he was thus the discoverer of its source. The account of his travels was written twelve years after his journey and without reference to his journals, which gave critics grounds for disbelief, but the substantial accuracy of the book has since been amply demonstrated


  • Egypt And Mohammed Ali, Or Travels In The Valley of The Nile, James Augustus St. John, Longman, London, 1834

St. John traveled extensively in Egypt and Nubia in 1832-33, mainly on foot. He gives a very interesting picture of Egyptian life and politics under Mohammed Ali, a large part of volume II deals with the Egyptian campaign in Syria.

  • Travels in Ethiopia Above the Second Cateract of the Nile; Exhibiting the State of That Country and Its Various Inhabitants Under the Dominion of Mohammed Ali; and Illustrating the Antiquities, arts, and History of the Ancient Kingdom of Meroe, A.Hoskins. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, London; 1835.
  • Modern Egypt and Thebes: Being a Description of Egypt; Including Information Required for Travellers in That Country, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, John Murray, London, 1843

The first known English travelers guide to the Lower Nile Basin


  • Lake Regions of Central Equatorial Africa, with Notices of The Lunar Mountains and the Sources of the White Nile; being The Results of an Expedition Undertaken under the Patronage of Her Majesty’s Government and the Royal Geographical Society of London, In the Years 1857-1859, Sir Richard Burton. W. Clowes , London; 1860

Sir Richard Burton’s presentation of his expedition with John Speke. Ultimately, Burton’s view of the sources of the Nile failed and Speke’s prevailed

  • Travels, researches, and missionary labours, during eighteen years’ residence in eastern Africa. Together with journeys to Jagga, Usambara, Ukambani, Shoa, Abessinia, and Khartum; and a coasting voyage from Mombaz to Cape Delgado. With an appendix respecting the snow-capped mountains of eastern Africa; the sources of the Nile; the languages and literature of Abessinia And eastern Africa, etc.etc., Rev Dr. J. Krapf, Trubner and Co, London; 1860; Tickner & Fields, Boston; 1860

Krapf went to East Africa in the service of the English Church Missionary Society, arriving at Mombasa, Kenya in 1844 and staying in East Africa until 1853. While stationed there he was the first to report the existence of Lake Baringo and a sighting of the snow-clad Kilimanjaro. Krapf, during his travels, collected information from the Arab traders operating inland from the coast. From the traders Krapf and his companions learned of great lakes and snow-capped mountains, which Krapf claimed to have seen for himself, much to the ridicule of English explorers who could not believe the idea of snow on the equator. However, Krapf was correct and had seen Mounts Kilimanjaro and Kenya, the first European to do so.

  • Egypt, Soudan and Central Africa: With Explorations From Khartoum on the White Nile to the Regions of the Equator, Being Sketches from Sixteen Years’ Travel, John Petherick. William Blackwood, Edinburgh; 1861

Petherick was a well known Welsh traveler in East Central Africa where he had adopted the profession of mining engineer. This work describes sixteen years of his travel throughout Africa. In 1845 he entered the service of Mehemet Ali, and was employed in examining Upper Egypt, Nubia, the Red Sea coast and Kordofan in an unsuccessful search for coal. In 1848 he left the Egyptian service and established himself at El Obeid as a trader and was, at the same time made British Consul for the Sudan. In 1853 he removed to Khartoum and became an ivory trader. He traveled extensively in the Bahr-el-Ghazal region, then almost unknown, exploring the Jur, Yalo and other affluents of the Ghazal and in 1858 he penetrated the Niam-Niam country. Petherick’s additions to the knowledge of natural history were considerable, being responsible for the discovery of a number of new species. In 1859 he returned to England where he became acquainted with John Speke, then arranging for an expedition to discover the source of the Nile. While in England, Petherick married and published this account of his travels. He got the idea to join Speke in his travels, and in this volume is an actual subscription and list of subscribers to raise money to send Petherick to join Speke. His subsequent adventures as a consul in Africa were published in a later work

  • Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile, John Hanning Speke. Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1863; Harper & Brothers, New York, 1864

Speke had previously made an expedition with Sir Richard Burton under the auspices of the Indian government, on which Speke was convinced that he had discovered the source of the Nile. Burton, however, disagreed and ridiculed Speke’s account. Speke set off on another expedition, recounted here, in the company of Captain Grant. During the course of this expedition he not only produced further evidence for his discoveries but also met up with Sir Samuel Baker and provided him with essential information which helped Baker in his discovery of the Albert Nyanza. The importance of Speke’s discoveries can hardly be overestimated. In discovering the source reservoir of the Nile he succeeded in solving the problem of all ages; he and Grant were the first Europeans to cross Equatorial Eastern Africa and gained for the world a knowledge of about 500 miles (800 km) of a portion of Eastern Africa previously totally unknown.


Posted on 15. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

distance relationships can be difficult, but not impossible…
I can’t stand it for another day
When you live so many miles away.
Nothing here is gonna make me stay,
(You) took me over, let me find a way.
Life cannot always be a rosy ride and similar is the case with relationships. Life and relationships are such similar things, – to be happy you need to put in your heart and soul into it, give it your best shot and leave the rest to fate! To have a special someone to share your life with makes life worthwhile, but what happens when the circumstances force you to stay apart…Most of the people get scared by the mention of long distance relationships, some of them dread it, and the optimists go against the tide…battle it everyday, every moment till the end.
Keeping any relationship alive and kicking is one hell of a job and the distance just makes it tougher. Forget meeting each other everyday or romantic outings, even regular emails, calls or letters cannot be guaranteed. Petty misunderstandings that you could usually erase with a simple hug can last for days or even weeks. Well then what is so great about long distance relationships you ask…well great I don’t know, but like every other thing, there is an upside to long distance relationships for sure!
First things first, you can think of surviving a long-distance relationship only and only if you are the kind of person who is ready for real commitment or at least ready to work towards a long-term relationship. Long distance relationships test you inside out and upside down! Be ready to juggle your routine chores, workload, your friends and family and your loved one all at the same time! If you thought mood swings could create problems in normal relationships, the distance will make it even worse. There will be times when you are down right frustrated and dejected and your better half has the most cheerful story to share with you. You cant pretend to be interested (off course you’ll be caught!) and hanging up the phone will be sacrilege! That is the thing, there is no right or wrong! Long distance relationships bring out the best or at times the worst in you…it is all about your perspective.
Although it is a common notion that people who have a long distance relationships lead two separate lives, it is quite possible for two people to stay in touch everyday, plan their schedules together, and share their lives in spite of the distance that separates them. While die-hard romantics like me would prefer to pen down mushy love letters and send them across the miles via snail mail, people certainly have more options today. Those who have been in a long-distance relationship will vouch for that fact that the Internet has been a true blessing! Go get one of those web-cams, log on to the messengers and exchange emails, although it might not be as good as the real deal, well again just like life, you need to stop sulking and make the most with what you have!
Long distance relationships, can actually be quite fun if two people are staying away for a short period of time, the duration is crucial but so is your attitude. Patience is one of the virtues that you will acquire if you learn to manage a long distance relationship. For some it is like a rough patch, which needs to be battled, while for others it becomes a way of life. Either ways, there is only one thing that makes the relationship work – The will to make it work! Long distance relationships and marriages work on the same principle – you need to master the art of adjustment, real well!
You miss each other, you struggle to catch up with each others’ lives, you get hurt at times, yearn to be together, but the question is, how long can you survive it? From what I have learnt I can assure you that if you think of it as a battle, you’ll never survive it, accept it as a bond that holds you together and it will strengthen with time. Do not think of it as a difficult path that will lead you to your love, lose yourself in the journey and you will enjoy every moment of it – Bitter or sweet!


Posted on 15. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

Sometime I think that most of friends or those close to me are usually angry after some time and leave me wondering for the reason, I never found a proper answer to it. But I think if I am sure about my honesty and love for all of them and had no intension to be an Ex-friend in their life.
When I was a child I used to see my father going for fishing with his friends at least once a year, his bag had hocks, rods and sometime some worms, that why I starting hating finishing as I used to feel nausea at sight of worms.
Since my childhood I loved strawberries but not ice cream as I had lactose intolerance and had to avoid milk products. Yes strawberry was not a milk product.
I used to think why my father takes worms for fishing why not strawberry then I could join him to catch the fished offering those strawberries to them by hock and another reason was that I had a wish to see them finishing.
Now I think why don’t I use the same common sense when fishing for the people?
Why talk about what we want? That is childish .Of course everyone is interested in what they want they dame care about others then why I care about them.I am different or simply abnormal, I try to give them which they dot deserve rather it is for some other creation or planet.
So what I got in this lifetime experience is that the only way on earth to influence other people is to talk about what they want and show them without hiding anything , yes tell them the tricks to get that. When they get the fruit and trick to grow it they will cut your tree, as they wished to learn from you how to grow the tree and how to get the fruit.
I don’t want to be a big person but a human being and human being don’t expect any reward for any help, honesty or even sacrifice.
Remember that in future when you are trying to get somebody t o do something.
If for instance, you don’t want your child to smoke, don’t preach them and don’t try to impose your honesties and sincerities on them, if you want to help them just tell them cigarettes may keep them making the cricket team or winning the hundred-meter race.
While dealing forget about the man with whom you are dealing, an old friend yes your beloved one or chimpanzees as the nature is same.
Every act we have ever performed since our birth took place as we needed that for something .How about teaching a friend like someone from Peshawar   who learnt how to live a better rather proper life and escaped, he learnt ‘A’ and took it ‘Z’, as he was in hurry. Yes this is not exception to the rule. I gave him favor as I wanted to lend a helping hand, if he took my hand while going this is not his mistake, oh, leave it, he didn’t do anything selfish, nor I did anything foolish. I wanted to spend a beautiful divine life, which he didn’t come to learn, both of us got what we desired and both of us were not wrong, we got our destinations.
If I didn’t want this feeling a divine feeling of helping, educating and crying for people I could have satisfied my inner for doing what all did before me, in front of me and will keep on doing after me.
I got what I wanted, I don’t have money but I can spend infinite, I don’t have resources but I can lend everyone. This is the divine pleasure for which I had to pay all I had,my money, my pleasure, my prestige and my love ones. If they spare some time to think and realize that they took money, art and respect from me but they forget to rob the secret of divine satisfaction which always comes when you have a lending hand, when you are honest with your love ones, they cheat you and you trust them, they don’t but you know them. You know a snake and milk him, this is the divined spirit. Yah, you can say a crazy idea.
My friends! first of all arouse the eager in yourself , he who can get this ,have the world behind him, So if you want to lead the world give worm to the fish and eat a strawberry. —-(Khartoum,Sudan- 23-01-2010).


Posted on 15. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

What is democracy?
Is it an Islamic law?
Do we need it to be replaced by new law?
Why we are afraid of the son called believers of democracy who dictate us about democracy where they are criminals of human rights, they can kill anyone, destroy any government, punish any leader for human rights violation whereas the reality is that they don’t know what human rights are.
We need to have a system in which everyone posses a vote name green vote but a graduate holds a blue vote equal to two votes, someone with master degree shall have right to caste yellow vote equal to 4 green votes and those having doctoral degrees or equivalent degrees mush have a right to caste red vote equal to 10 green votes.
Alternatively we can have a system of stages, first all green voters vote and elect  candidates (there must be a specific criteria) for instance two candidates for a seat (the first and second) in votes must be exposed to the votes of those having post graduate degrees. Unless we have mature patriotic political parties and leaders who is going to make such policies, many of them were out when BA condition was introduced.
When we suggest a committee of educated experts all those having typical traditional thoughts they come and destroy the idea.
We need a group of educated sincere people who guide the nation towards Islam and keep in mind Islam is everlasting religion for our nation, we don’t need modern islam, islam is already modern religion.We just need another Jinnah or Attaturk.
Who is going to give us back Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN.
Syed Amir Gilani



Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

It is one of the basic tips for success that you do hard work but never tell others about it .why?
As then you show your strength and limitations, never ask for help ,never admit that you are out of your depth, yes you can ask for guidance ,advice and information but when you expose yourself and show your depth people will start manipulating these things against you and soon you will realize that your are about to be finished. HYPOXIC.
If you have done that take a U-turn, start showing that you are happy , relaxed and not overloaded in life.
You don’t have depressions and if there were any you have overcome that.
Syed Amir Gilani


Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

All days in our life are not impact days, most of the days are routine days, we wake up do our routine job and sleep. Even most of the week- ends are just routine week- ends.
There are just few days which have real impact on our life regardless of their type. They can have good impact or bad impact but they are important in building our life or I can say in smooth movement of our life.
If we have a sense of catching the smell of such days in the early moments of that special day we can manage it better to get the results we are looking for .And which can bring different and desired results.
For instance I believe the impact days of my life included my birthday, my first day in school, my first friend in the school, my first flight, some of my birthdays.
I can call the days of happiness and sorrow or grief as impact day. The day, I lost my mother had great impact on my personality.
The days when I took important decisions about my life or business were impact days.
Whenever I feel that a specific day had impact on my life I try to note it down as impact day and it’s my habit from last 20 years. I think on almost all impact days I was able to write down something and would like to share that with you.
Today two faries had accident in river Nile at Rachid near Cairo,Egypt resulting in about 80 people missing and there was a suicidal bomb attack at a mosque near army headquarters in Rawalpindi in which 40 died,108 died in Russia due to fire in a building of a night club, few died in a bomb blast in Iraq. All these events are going to be impact days for many individuals and families although were just news for many of us.

Syed Amir Gilani
Edinburgh, Scotland


Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

Today on 15th of december 2009 i just recived this great email from MY SWEET friend DR FAZEEL-U-ZAMAN ALVI ,I wish to share with all of you.
“If you have knowledge, let others light their candles in it”
A Beautiful Hadith

Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) said: ‘When a man dies and his relatives are busy in funeral, there stands an extremely handsome man by his head. When the dead body is shrouded, that man gets in between the shroud and the chest of the deceased.
When after the burial, the people return home, 2 angels, Munkar and Nakeer(names of two special Angels), come in the grave and try to separate this handsome man so that they may be able to interrogate the dead man in privacy about his faith. But the handsome man says, ‘He is my companion, he is my friend. I will not leave him alone in any case. If you are appointed for interrogation, do your job. I cannot leave him until I get him admitted into Paradise ‘.
Thereafter he turns to his dead companion and says, ‘I am the Qur’an, which you used to read, sometimes in a loud voice and sometimes in a low voice. Do not worry. After the interrogation of Munkar and Naker, you will have no grief.’
When the interrogation is over, the handsome man arranges for him from Al-Mala’ul A’laa (the angels in Heaven) silk bedding filled with musk..
Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) said: ‘On the Day of Judgement, before Allah, no other Intercessor will have a greater status than the Qur’an, neither a Prophet nor an angel.’
Please keep forwarding this ‘Hadith’ to all ….because
Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) said:
‘Pass on knowledge from me even if it is only one verse’.
May Allah bestow this favour on all of us.

Assalamu Alaikum

We are praying that the following message in the next seven days would reach at least FIVE MILLION Muslims all over the world, Insha-Allah. Please forward this message TODAY to your friends and relatives and earn abundant Rewards from Allah Subhanahu watala.

please add another hadees about quran’s haqooq’s reading
listening understanding learning spreading to others acting on it practicing it


Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

I am sitting at departure lounge of Khartoum international airport,sudan. About 28 hours back I was at the same airport arriving from Prague via Istanbul. At about 3am today I received a call from my another brother in law syed Muhammad Naeem who informed me about death of my brother in law syed taseer ali, who was husband of my fourth sister Aliya Gilani. They have two daughters and a son. It was a shocking news for me as I could imagine the pain this incidence is going to give to my father, to my sister her children and then to me too.
After his family I was going to be the most affected person as it increase another responsibility on my shoulders, I am praying that my creator bless me with strength to solve this paper.
Syed Taseer Ali who died at age of 45 years was an extra-ordinary human being,an honest person in all his dealings and relations.I don’t care about people good in religious affairs ,for me good are those who are good for others.He was always ready to help everyone.
He was diagnosed as case of Chronic Myloid Leukemia about 6 years back and was taking oral therapy which was keeping him active and a bit healthy.
Two months before his death his disease woke up and ended in his death,death is always a horror

Syed Amir Gilani

Enjoying What I am Doing

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

If there is not enjoyment in our work then there is no reason to do it as it becomes useless .I believe there are plenty of people who enjoy their work while doing it but they doing realize it or even if they know it they don’t want to say it.
When we start enjoying our work or job we start realizing that our steps are light, our stress has gone and whole of life becomes digestible rather sweet.
Syed Amir Gilani

Handling Other People’s Anger

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

Getting Personal

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

Knowing Myself

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

My Bad Habits

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

If there is not enjoyment in our work then there is no reason to do it as it becomes useless .I believe there are plenty of people who enjoy their work while doing it but they doing realize it or even if they know it they don’t want to say it.
When we start enjoying our work or job we start realizing that our steps are light, our stress has gone and whole of life becomes digestible rather sweet.
Syed Amir Gilani

I Lost Whenever I Lost My Temperament

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Politics In Ultrasound

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Can I Get My Destiny?

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

The Day I Passed My M.B.,B.S

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Is It The Best Day Of My Life?

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

The First “Jin” I Met

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

The Day My Love Cheated Me And How I Enjoyed It

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

My Lovely Pakistan

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Future Of Islam

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Bad Children

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

We” Not “I”, a Key of Success

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

If you go to a meeting it is so much more grown up to talk of we instead of I.
In order to implement this we have to start involving our youngsters and junior staff members in this procedure so that they start feeling part of us and we all work as a team. The word ‘We’ gives strength and the word I make me weak.
Syed Amir Gilani

Dress For Your Desire Not For The Fashion

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Science and Vegetarians

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Debate Between Followers of Two Religions

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.

Get You Face And Name Known

Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin.


Posted on 14. Feb, 2011 by admin in Articles

Setting personal standards is a common custom in an arranged personality,for me it was very hard to start with proper human guidance its my creator who guided me to establish few standards.For instance i decided that i am not going to hurt another human being in the pursuit of my career,i paid a lot for it,but i did it in more than 99% occasions i believe.
Another thing always eating my mind was not to knowingly beak any lawa in the furtherance of my career,in the begining it was very difficult and seemed to be the necesscity of growing but with help of some critics and friends i was able to control this bad habbit,most of the time.
I always try to have positive moral contribution to the society by what i do for a living.I used to be very much depressed while comparing my progess in the same field with the others growing a little bit more. Then i decided that i will never be jealous of anyone else’s success in the same field rather will try to follow that successful person above that will try to find the usefull stpes he missed in his growth so that my efforts can be more fruitfull and rewarding for me and for other human being.
I learnt many things from different relgions and trie to convince myself that i am at better position or with the best option available but i never had bad ideas about any other reigion rather i respected all of them,as i wanted to play by the rules at all times.
This was my peronal code of conduct which helped me to face all friends,compatiters and even enemies,and i found it great.
Syed Amir Gilani